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Glossary

SALT

Element – a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances through chemical processes

Compound – a substance made up of two or more different elements

Sodium – a soft, grey, metallic element that is essential for our bodies

Chlorine – a gaseous element, often used to disinfect water

Sodium Chloride – table salt, a compound of sodium and chlorine
Milligram – a measurement of mass that weighs 1/1000 of a gram

Periodic table of elements –a chart listing all the elements known at this time and grouped according to their characteristics

BACTERIA

Microbe- a microorganism, such as a bacterium (plural: bacteria)

Cell – a basic unit of life

Single-cell organism – a living creature consisting of only one cell, such as a bacterium.  Animals and plants are multi-cellular organisms.

Reproduce – to breed, create offspring

Room Temperature – a common indoor temperature, somewhere around 73 degrees Fahrenheit (23 degrees Celsius)

CARBOHYDRATES

Molecule –a group of atoms bonded together, such as 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom that bond to make a water molecule (H2O)

Carbon – an abundant element on Earth that occurs in all known forms of life

Hydrogen – a highly flammable gas, the lightest and most abundant element in the universe

Oxygen – a colorless, odorless, gaseous element that makes up about 21 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere and is an important part of the air we breathe

Carbohydrate – a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the form of sugars, starches, and fiber, found in most foods

Glucose (Blood Sugar) – a simple carbohydrate (sugar) that is the product of photosynthesis and that gives our bodies energy

Fructose – a simple carbohydrate (sugar) found in fruits, some vegetables, honey, and high fructose corn syrup

Sucrose – table sugar, a compound of glucose and fructose

Starch – a type of carbohydrate made up of a long chain of glucose beads and found in such foods as potatoes, rice, and bread

Fiber – a carbohydrate found in most plant-based foods that plays a role in digestion and that helps keep our bodies regular

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Chlorophyll – the green pigment in plants that absorbs sunlight and plays a key role in photosynthesis

Hydrogen – a highly flammable gas, the lightest and most abundant element in the universe

Oxygen – a colorless, odorless, gaseous element that makes up about 21 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere

Carbon Dioxide – (CO2 ), a gas in the atmosphere that is produced when carbon-based fuel is burned and when animals and humans exhale

H20 – the chemical formula for water: 2 hydrogen atoms bonded to 1 oxygen atom

Molecule – a group of atoms bonded together, such as 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen atoms that bond to make H2O

Glucose - a simple carbohydrate (sugar) that is the product of photosynthesis and that gives plants and our bodies energy

Food web – a group of organisms connected by their feeding habits.  A food web begins with a producer (such as a plant which produces its own food, glucose) and ends with different types of consumers (organisms that can’t produce their own food)

Phytoplankton: tiny organisms that live in water and produce glucose through photosynthesis

HEAT

Molecule –a group of atoms bonded together, such as 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen atoms that bond to make H2O

Conduction – the transfer of heat through a solid substance

Radiation – energy in the form of electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic spectrum – a chart that shows the range of electromagnetic energy in the universe, from tiny gamma rays to giant radio waves

WATER

H20 – the chemical formula for water: two hydrogen atoms bonded to 1 oxygen atom

Hydrogen – a highly flammable gas, the lightest and most abundant element in the universe

Oxygen – a colorless, odorless, gaseous element that makes up about 21 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere and is an important part of the air we breathe

Molecule –a group of atoms bonded together, such as 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen atoms that bond to make H2O                       

3 States of matter – Almost everything on earth is made up of matter in the form of solids (such as salt), liquids (such as water), and gasses (such as oxygen).